Biodiversity

Mainstreaming Biodiversity: Conservation for the Twenty-First Century

Kent H. Redford, Brian J. Huntley, Dilys Roe, Tom Hammond, Mark Zimsky, Thomas E. Lovejoy, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Carlos M. Rodriguez and Richard M. Cowling

Insufficient focused attention has been paid by the conservation community to conservation of biodiversity outside of protected areas. Biodiversity mainstreaming addresses this gap in global conservation practice by “embedding biodiversity considerations into policies, strategies and practices of key public and private actors that impact or rely on biodiversity, so that it is conserved, and sustainably used, both locally and globally” (Huntley and Redford, 2014). Biodiversity mainstreaming is designed to change those policies and practices that influence land uses outside of protected areas as well as to change economic and development decision-making by demonstrating the importance of conserving biodiversity for achieving development outcomes. The practice of mainstreaming is tied to implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and is practiced with billions of dollars of investment by development agencies, national government agencies, and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and its implementing organizations as well as other donors. It is essential for the long-term survival of biodiversity inside and outside protected areas. However, it is virtually unheard of in the main conservation science field. This must change so as to bring careful documentation, analysis, monitoring, publishing, and improvement of practices—all things that conservation science should provide as partners to practitioners of biodiversity mainstreaming. The situation is ripe for informed coordination and consolidation and creation of a science-driven field of biodiversity mainstreaming.

Published Date:
12/2015

Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Practice

The challenges confronting the conservation of the planet’s richness of life threaten to overwhelm our collective efforts to limit species loss and degradation of ecosystems and the services that they deliver. The foundation of biodiversity conservation for well over a century have been protected areas (PAs). While successful, they are increasingly vulnerable to land use changes taking place around them.  In response to these trends, conservationists and international organizations have developed and actively supported a new biodiversity conservation paradigm: biodiversity mainstreaming. It is the process of embedding biodiversity considerations into policies, strategies and practices of key public and private actors to promote conservation and sustainable use of natural resources beyond PA boundaries.  This STAP Advisory Document on Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Practice reports on the outcome of two workshops on this issue that took place in Cape Town, South Africa in 2004 and 2013.  In 2004, the objective was to review the concept of biodiversity mainstreaming, to promote best practices in GEF projects focused on production landscapes and seascapes, and to assess the effectiveness of such interventions. In 2013, the objective was to assess lessons learned following investments totaling over US$ 1.6 billion made since 2003 by the GEF in over 300 mainstreaming projects in 135 countries.  Case studies and perspectives on mainstreaming are also included. The report concludes that while progress has been made to mainstream biodiversity into broader policy and practice areas, it is clear that greater care needs to be brought to the design, implementation, and assessment of mainstreaming projects to inform and improve future efforts. Publication Date:  April 2014 Authors: Brian J. Huntley, Kent H. Redford. DOWNLOAD

Published Date:
04/2014

Assessing the Effects of Terrestrial Protected Areas on Human Well-Being

Establishing protected areas (PAs) has been one of the most common and successful interventions since the very beginning of the conservation movement. The process of protecting areas from threats posed by human activities will, by definition, inhibit some of these activities and therefore potentially have adverse impacts on the well-being of people living in or near PAs. However, these impacts could be balanced through the maintenance of valuable ecosystem services or the introduction of new livelihood options. Consequently, there is an on-going debate about whether the net impact of PAs on human well-being at local or regional scales is positive or negative. This STAP Advisory Document and associated Policy Brief Assessing the Effects of Terrestrial Protected Areas on Human Well-being reports on the results of a systematic review of evidence related to the impacts on human well-being arising from the establishment or maintenance of terrestrial PAs.  The evidence base provides a range of possible pathways of the impacts of PAs on human well-being (both positive and negative). However, it provides very little support for decision making on how to maximise positive impacts or minimise negative ones. Recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies and to replicate this study to focus specifically on the rich portfolio of GEF terrestrial protected area projects to better understand the empirical evidence of impacts of PAs on human well-being and to develop a streamlined methodology for PA projects in the GEF portfolio to be tested in GEF-6, with the goal of improving their overall effectiveness and post-project sustainability. Publication Date:  April 2014 Authors:  Andrew S. Pullin, Sarah Dalrymple, Neal R. Haddaway, Teri Knight, Mukdarut Bangpan, Kelly Dickson,  Hanan Hauari, Carol Vigurs, Sandy Oliver, John R. Healey, Neal Hockley, Julia P.G. Jones. DOWNLOAD FULL REPORT DOWNLOAD POLICY BRIEF Appendices: Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix 9 Appendix 10

Published Date:
04/2014

Biodiversity and ecosystems for a planet under pressure- Transition to sustainability: interconnected challenges and solutions

RIO +20 POLICY BRIEF

We share this planet with millions of other species and varieties of life, and depend on ecosystems for all our basic needs. While current trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services are sharply and dangerously negative, the right actions, developed and implemented promptly, can restore a biologically rich and ecologically viable planet. This policy brief sets out the main challenges facing the world as we seek to protect and enhance our vital biodiversity and its human benefits. In addition, we suggest pathways that will lead us towards a more sustainable future.

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Published Date:
03/2012

The Evidence Base for Community Forest Management as a Mechanism for Supplying Global Environmental Benefits and Improving Local Welfare

 Community forest management (CFM) initiatives comprise a range of efforts to involve people who live in and around forests in forest management decisions. CFM initiatives often vest in communities some degree of decision-making power over forest management and rights to the benefits from such management. These initiatives are expected to result in more effective forest management, which is expected to help conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services and contribute to poverty reduction and economic development. CFM initiatives are common components in GEF-funded projects aimed at sustainable forest management and the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services outside of government-managed protected areas. This advisory document summarizes the evidence base for the effectiveness of CFM initiatives in generating global, national, regional and local environmental benefits. It also summarizes evidence related to the socioeconomic impacts on participants. It was reviewed by two external reviewers, STAP panel members and STAP Secretariat staff.

Publication Date: September 2010 Authors: Diana Bowler and Andrew S. Pullin DOWNLOAD

Published Date:
09/2010

Environmental Certification and the Global Environment Facility

Sustainable certification (“eco-certification”) initiatives certify that commercial producers adhere to predefined environmental and social welfare production standards. Such initiatives are common in GEF-funded projects aimed at mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in production landscapes and seascapes. This advisory document summarizes the evidence base for the effectiveness of certification programs in generating global, national, regional and local environmental benefits. It also summarizes evidence related to the socioeconomic impacts on participants. It was reviewed by two external reviewers, STAP panel members and STAP Secretariat staff. Publication Date: September 2010 Authors: Allen Blackman and Jorge Rivera DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD Appendix

Published Date:
09/2010

Payments for Environmental Services and the Global Environment Facility

 Payments for Environmental Services (PES), sometimes called Payments for Ecosystem Services, are a popular intervention in GEF projects that aim to generate ongoing financial incentives for environmental objectives. This advisory document summarizes the evidence base for PES effectiveness and the key issues to consider in the design and selection of PES programs in the GEF portfolio. Publication Date: December 2008 (Revised on March 2010) Authors: Sven Wunder, Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff and Paul Ferraro DOWNLOAD

Published Date:
12/2008

Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms Volume 3: Methodologies for Transgenic Fish

The decline of many individual and wild fish stocks has commanded an increase in aquaculture production to meet the protein demands of a growing population. Alongside selective breeding schemes and expanding facilities, transgenic methods have received increasing attention as a potential factor in meeting these demands. With a focus on developing countries, this third text in the series provides detailed information on environmental biosafety policy and regulation and presents methodologies for assessing ecological risks associated with transgenic fish.

Publication Date: October 2007 Authors: A.R. Kapuscinski, K.R. Hayes, S. Li and G. Dana This is a STAP Collaborative Publication Publication is available for purchase at CABI Bookshop and other popular online book retaliers.

Published Date:
10/2007

Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms, Volume 2: A Case Study of Bt Cotton in Brazil

Many international forums have identified the need for comprehensive, scientific methods for the pre-release testing and post-release monitoring of transgenic plants to ensure their environmental safety and sustainable use. In response to this requirement, a GMO Guidelines Project was established under the aegis of the International Organization for Biological Control, to develop biosafety testing guidelines for transgenic plants. This second volume focuses on transgenic cotton in Brazil and addresses both environmental and agricultural impacts. It draws out some general risk assessment guidelines and demonstrates the need for case-by-case analysis.

Publication Date: March 2006 Authors: A. Hilbeck and D.A. Andow This is a STAP Collaborative Publication Publication is available for purchase at CABI Bookshop and other popular online book retaliers.

Published Date:
03/2006

Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms, Volume 1: A Case Study of Bt Maize in Kenya

International forums have identified the need for comprehensive, transparent, scientific methods, for the pre-release testing and post-release monitoring of transgenic plants to ensure environmental safety. There is also wide recognition that the regulatory and scientific capacity for conducting these types of assessments needs to be strengthened.In response to these requirements, a GMO Guidelines Project was established - under the aegis of the International Organization for Biological Control - to develop biosafety testing guidelines for transgenic plants. This book is one of the first outputs from this project. The book aims, using the case study of Bt maize, to detail generic approaches to the evaluation of environmental impact of GM technologies. This book focuses on transgenic maize in Kenya. This maize includes genetic material derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which naturally produces proteins that are toxic to some insects. The book explores both the environmental and agricultural impacts of transgenic plants. It draws out general risk assessment guidelines, and demonstrates the need for case-by-case analysis. Although focused on Kenya and Bt Maize, the book's findings and recommendations are relevant and applicable to a multitude of nations and GM crops.

Publication Date: October 2004 Authors: A. Hilbeck and D.A. Andow This is a STAP Collaborative Publication Publication is available for purchase at CABI Bookshop and other popular online book retaliers.

Published Date:
10/2004

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