The GEF's chemicals and waste focal area's objectives are strongly interlinked with those of other focal areas. The production, use, and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), mercury, ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are major drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change, land degradation, and impact on international waters. Chemicals and waste are also interlinked with socio-economic issues, including human health, food security, poverty, gender equality, and economic improvements. Hence, the sound management of chemicals will deliver multiple benefits across all of GEF's focal areas; and yield other environmental benefits outside of GEF's focal areas and provide socio-economic gains. This STAP advisory report presents some of the interlinkages between the goals of the chemicals and waste focal area and those of other GEF focal areas, as well as the interactions with other environmental and socio-economic issues. It also discusses systems thinking as an approach for developing chemicals and waste projects that address interlinkages, delivers multiple benefits, and lead to transformative changes. Advice on how to effectively capture the multiple benefits from GEF chemicals and waste interventions and account for contributions towards broader chemicals and waste and sustainability objectives are also presented.
Chemicals and Waste
Delivering Multiple Benefits through the Sound Management of Chemicals and Waste
Principles for the Development of Integrated Transformational Projects in Climate Change and Chemicals & Waste
Drawing on 32 case studies from the fields of Climate Change (CC), Chemicals & Waste (Ch&W), and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS), the paper demonstrates how system thinking can enhance outcomes and lead to wider adoption of new technologies, changes and behaviours that protect and restore the environment. The paper offers guidance for the GEF on how to develop integrated projects and programs, based on a review of the literature on systems thinking and similar disciplines, drawing from examples [of GEF projects] demonstrating lessons on integrated programming in support of sustainable development and delivering multiple benefits.
In this paper, integrated approaches are seen as instruments that can bring about changes in the multiple domains necessary to achieve the desired long-term transformation. Thus "integrated projects or programs" are understood to consider causes across the environment and different realms of human activity, and to generate benefits in two or more GEF focal areas, as well as social and economic benefits. Given the multiple factors, interconnections involved and complexity of CC, and the processes related to Ch&W, the central conclusion of this review is that systems thinking can be used to derive key principles to guide the development and implementation of integrated projects that contribute to transformation at scale for both CC and Ch&W.
Emerging Chemicals Management Issues in Developing Countries and Countries with Economies In Transition
In the face of rapid globalization and demand for products, increased trade, expansion of manufacturing into Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition (CEIT), new chemicals, uses, or products, along with an increased awareness of real or potential negative impacts of chemicals, the last two decades has also seen the rapid implementation of a number of regional and international agreements regarding chemicals management, which have focused concerns on the need for a globally effective and sustainable chemicals management process. One particular chemicals management response of note, is the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), which pays particular attention to chemicals, products, uses, releases, or wastes that are currently not under consideration or taken up by existing Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). Apart from the potential of human health and environmental effects from chemicals, other aspects such as increased transboundary movement of chemicals through trade or environmental release have also come to the fore. As various MEAs wade in to manage and regulate some discreet categories of chemical, there are increased concerns and awareness about those that are not covered, or only partially covered or recognized by regulation. These are commonly and collectively termed Emerging Chemical Management Issues (ECMIs). This document seeks to attempt definition of the ECMI, and to identify, evaluate and prioritize ECMIs in relation to the likely chemical management needs of Developing Countries and CEIT. In doing so, it is hoped that it will help with the allocation of additional resources and support from the GEF within its mandate to anticipate, prevent, reduce and/or minimize adverse impacts of chemicals on human health and the environment.
Selection of Persistent Organic Pollutant Disposal Technology for the GEF
This advisory document builds on the original 2004 STAP study on the selection of POPs disposal technologies for GEF-financed projects, and utilizes experience gained during GEF-4. It is not intended to duplicate or supersede technology evaluations provided by the Basel Convention, Stockholm Convention, or other groups, but rather seeks to lay out guidance on the attributes that technologies should demonstrate when GEF funding is involved. The critical elements in POPs technology selection outlined herein can be used to help streamline the design, development, review, implementation and execution of GEF funded POPs disposal projects. This will provide a consistent overall framework for the application of GEF funding in this area, enhance appropriateness of technology to local project conditions, and also support clearer lessons learned as the portfolio of projects matures, enabling further refinement in the approach to project design and maximization of impact and sustainability. The STAP concludes that destruction cannot be addressed in isolation, but instead, the application of POPs disposal technology should be viewed as one part of an overall POPs management process or system. This system includes steps taken in advance of the actual disposal or destruction to identify, capture, secure, and prepare POPs stockpiles and wastes for disposal, as well as post-destruction steps to manage emissions, by-products and residuals. Publication Date: November 2011 Authors: Richard J. Cooke and William F. Carroll DOWNLOAD
STAP Screen - 6966
Title: UPOPs Reduction through BAT/BEP and PPP-based Industry Chain Management in Secondary Copper Production Sector in China
STAP Screen - 6921
Title: Demonstration of Mercury Reduction and Minimization in the Production of Vinyl Chloride Monomer
STAP Screens - 9045
Title: Comprehensive Environmentally Sound Management of PCBs in Montenegro
STAP Screens - 9046
Title: Reduction and Phase-out of PFOS in Priority Sectors in China
STAP Screens - 9078
Title: : Implementation of PCB Management Programs for Electric Cooperatives and Safe e-wastes Management
STAP Screens - 9079
Title: Environmentally Sound Management of Products and Wastes Containing POPs and Risks Associated with their Final Disposal