The GEF's chemicals and waste focal area's objectives are strongly interlinked with those of other focal areas. The production, use, and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), mercury, ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are major drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change, land degradation, and impact on international waters. Chemicals and waste are also interlinked with socio-economic issues, including human health, food security, poverty, gender equality, and economic improvements. Hence, the sound management of chemicals will deliver multiple benefits across all of GEF's focal areas; and yield other environmental benefits outside of GEF's focal areas and provide socio-economic gains. This STAP advisory report presents some of the interlinkages between the goals of the chemicals and waste focal area and those of other GEF focal areas, as well as the interactions with other environmental and socio-economic issues. It also discusses systems thinking as an approach for developing chemicals and waste projects that address interlinkages, delivers multiple benefits, and lead to transformative changes. Advice on how to effectively capture the multiple benefits from GEF chemicals and waste interventions and account for contributions towards broader chemicals and waste and sustainability objectives are also presented.